When I heard the awful news on Sunday that 19 firefighters died fighting the Yarnell Hill Fire in Arizona, I immediately thought back to the Mann Gulch Fire of 1949. I had studied Mann Gulch for an interpretive project for the U.S. Forest Service. I also wrote a post about it last winter, and wondered briefly if now would be a good time to re-publish it. On the one hand, it seemed too soon, too sad. But, since most of the West is a dried-up tinderbox, and as we’re headed into the fire-crazed Fourth of July season, I decided that the more we think about the dangers of fire, the better.
By the way…does anyone else wish we would find a better way to celebrate Fourth of July? Maybe with red, white and blue waterballoons? Light-shows?
Anything but fire?
Here’s the re-post from last winter:
Occasionally in my interpretive sign career, I have been hired to deal with difficult, sensitive topics. Many historical themes fall into this category…our nation’s past has its share of dark subject matter, after all.
One particularly sad project was an interpretive sign I did for the U.S. Forest Service in Montana about the tragedy at Mann Gulch, a wildfire that killed thirteen young firefighters in 1949.
The Forest Service wanted to tell the story of the fire to honor those who died as well as the three who survived. They also wanted to frame the story in the greater context of what it taught us about firefighting techniques. There were a lot of hard lessons learned at Mann Gulch.
The sign was to be installed on the ridge above the canyon where the fire occurred. From the viewpoint, you can see across to the very place where the men died. It’s a chilling view.
The lightning-caused fire was—as most wildfires are—small at first. But it was a windy day and soon the fire “jumped” downhill to the mouth of the gulch—a much more dangerous position. Fires naturally burn uphill, and fueled by the tall, dry summer grasses, it soon “blew up” into a raging monster, racing uphill until it became a three-story high wall of flame, burning with the intensity of a giant blow-torch.
The Sign Project
One of the difficulties in interpretation is deciding what to include and what to leave out. On a sign, you are limited to approximately 150 words or so—not many when you consider how complicated most topics are. The objective is not to impart knowledge or information as much as it is to spark curiosity and interest. We want viewers to walk away with questions…wanting to know more.
But Mann Gulch was also a particularly sensitive subject. There was still one survivor alive at the time, as well as many close family members of the men who had died. The Forest Service wanted the subject matter handled carefully, out of respect for their feelings.
I decided on an approach to help the viewer relate the events of the day to the place—to bring the story alive. As in most sign projects, the graphics are where you hope to tell the story. I wanted to create illustrations that would ignite a sequence of events in the viewers’ imaginations—as if they were standing in this very spot in 1949 and witnessing those terrible events.
Here are some close-up snippets from the sign. You can’t see at this scale, but there are tiny little marks that indicate where the men were at each stage. Click on the photos for a larger view.
(Watercolor illustrations by me, Denise Dahn)
Leaving with a thought
The concluding message on the sign was “They did not die in vain.” The investigation and study of this fire led to new and improved strategies and techniques in modern fire fighting. This tragedy may have ultimately saved the lives of future firefighters.
Unfortunately, Mann Gulch was not the last tragic wildfire. Firefighting is a dangerous business.
All the more reason to be careful with fire. You know that already, right?
To read a detailed blow-by-blow account of the events at Mann Gulch http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mann_Gulch_fire
To read a blog post on Mann Gulch by the Forest History Society http://fhsarchives.wordpress.com/2009/07/10/visiting-mann-gulch-60-years-later/
To read a popular book based on events at Mann Gulch check out “Young Men and Fire” by Norman Maclean
To see a video about the fire and one of the firefighters, S. Raymond Thompson http://vimeo.com/37412195
Have you ever been near a wildfire? Have you ever worked as a firefighter or smokejumper? Have you ever been to Mann Gulch?
Do you think our country should find a better, less dangerous and potentially catastrophic way to celebrate the Fourth of July than with fireworks?
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